Generally 10% neutral buffered formalin.
- See also: General notes on fixation
On this resource, the following formatting is used for comprehensiveness:
- Minimal depth
- (Moderate depth)
Applicable in bleeding disorders, pain, leiomyoma and endometrial hyperplasia.
- The round ligament lies anterior to the tubes and ovaries.
- The peritoneum extends further down along the cervix posteriorly than anteriorly. Its ends bluntly posteriorly and sharply anteriorly.
- (Remove the adnexa. Weigh the uterus without the adnexa.)
- Perform a general inspection
- Measure the 3 dimensions, including the cervix. (Also measure the length of the cervix, the maximum diameter of the cervix, and the width of the cervical os.)
- Open the uterus by transmural radial cuts on both sides of the uterine cavity.[notes 2] The cavity is sometimes be squeezed or rolled around a leiomyoma, and you'll you have to improvise and perhaps go around the leiomyoma to open the cavity properly.
- Inspect the mucosa. If any polyps: Further information: Endometrial polyp
- Measure the thickness of the mucosa and myometrium
- Inspect the myometrium. If any tumor: Further information: Smooth muscle tumor
- Shape of uterus and adnex
- Mucosa, such as smooth or irregular.
- Any polyps. Further information: Endometrial polyp
- Mucosal and endometrial thickness
- Any smooth muscle tumor. Further information: Smooth muscle tumor
Slices for microscopy
- Four cross-sectiosn from any accompanying ectocervix. In subtotal extirpation, a cross-section is taken from the lower resection border.
- A transverse slice through the endocervix, possibly divided into two.
- One slice from the front and one from the back wall of the corpus, and one piece from each corner, including myometrium.
- Any mucosal parts with macroscopically abnormal appearance, including polyps.
- In case of endometrial hyperplasia, most of the mucosa of the corpus and fundus.
- Samples form all smooth muscle tumors >5 cm in diameter. Further information: Smooth muscle tumor
Look for signs of malignancy:
- Myometrium tumors: Further information: Smooth muscle tumor
- Endometrial polyps: Further information: Endometrial polyp
- Endometrial hyperplasia: Further information: Endometrial hyperplasia
|Histology Grade||Corresponding Cytology||Description||Image|
|CIN 1 (Grade I)||Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL)||
|CIN 2/3||High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL)[notes 3]||
|CIN 2 (Grade II)[notes 4]||
|CIN 3 (Grade III)[notes 5]||
Smooth muscle tumor (usually whorled pattern)
Example in a normal case:
|Microscopy of hysterectomy shows ecto and endocervix without atypia. The glands have columnar epithelium without atypia.
In the uterine cavity, there is endometrial mucosa with ordinary thickness and regularly arranged endometrial glands. (Optionally: Description of likely menstrual phase.) Sharp delimitation between endometrium and myometrium. The myometrium contains no focal changes. No evidence of malignancy.
- For a full list of contributors, see article history. Creators of images are attributed at the image description pages, seen by clicking on the images. See Patholines:Authorship for details.
- In the US, the cut goes from side to side, through the cervix and uterine cavity, keeping the anterior and posterior halves attached by a relatively thin connection left at the fundus. It is done by cutting with scissors with the blunt end in the cervix and then uterine cavity, or by a blade guided on each side by the shanks of a pair of forceps inserted through the cervix.
- In Sweden, the uterus is usually opened at the front in the midline, optionally with an incision towards each corner.
- HSIL+ encompasses HSIL, AGC, and cancer
- CIN 2+ encompasses CIN 2, CIN 3, adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), and cancer
- CIN 3+ encompasses CIN 3, AIS, and cancer
- Monica Dahlgren, Janne Malina, Anna Måsbäck, Otto Ljungberg. Stora utskärningen. KVAST (Swedish Society of Pathology). Retrieved on 2019-09-26.
- . General Specimen Orientation Tips. The University of Michigan (2020-01-29).
- Nagi, Chandandeep S.; Schlosshauer, Peter W. (2006). "Endocervical glandular involvement is associated with high-grade SIL ". Gynecologic Oncology 102 (2): 240–243. doi:10.1016/j.ygyno.2005.12.029. ISSN 00908258.