Skin chapter

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Author: Mikael Häggström [notes 1]
For skin specimens in general:


Generally 10% neutral buffered formalin.

See also: General notes on fixation

Microscopic evaluation

If the referral does not point to any particular request (see "Most common requests" above), the following algorithm may be applied:


Preferably see specific articles from algorithm in section above.

  • Optionally, the presence of a keratinized squamous epithelium.
  • Any abnormalities, generally preceded by location in terms of epidermal, dermal or more specific layers thereof.
  • If malignant:
  • Degree of differentiation
  • Radicality/Least distance to a margin
  • Perineural or vascular invasion if present


  1. For a full list of contributors, see article history. Creators of images are attributed at the image description pages, seen by clicking on the images. See Patholines:Authorship for details.

Main page


  1. Page 678 in: Chhabra, Seema; Minz, RanjanaWalker; Saikia, Biman (2012). "Immunofluorescence in dermatology ". Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology, and Leprology 78 (6): 677. doi:10.4103/0378-6323.102355. ISSN 0378-6323. Archived from the original. . 
  2. Katarzyna Lundmark, Krynitz, Ismini Vassilaki, Lena Mölne, Annika Ternesten Bratel. Handläggning av hudprover – provtagningsanvisningar, utskärningsprinciper och snittning (Handling of skin samples - Instructions for sampling, cutting and incision. KVAST (Swedish Society of Pathology). Retrieved on 2019-09-09.