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Parathyroid glands

2 bytes removed, 22 June
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===Intraoperative consultation===
Necessary components are:
*'''Weight''' of the parathyroid gland or fragment thereof. Generally, there should ''not'' be any subjective description of "enlarged" or similar.<ref group=notes note name=weight>The average weight of each parathyroid gland is about 30&nbsp;mg in men and 35&nbsp;mg in women,<sup>A</sup> but with a great variability: 90% of normal parathyroid glands weight less than 100g, and 96% less than 160g.<sup>B</sup> Thus, by weight alone, a pathologists generally can't tell whether a parathyroid is enlarged, or whether it is of its normal weight, such as being one of the 4% that are normally over 160g.<br>- A. {{cite journal|last=Johnson|first=S J|title=Best Practice No 183: Examination of parathyroid gland specimens|journal=Journal of Clinical Pathology|date=1 April 2005|volume=58|issue=4|pages=338–342|doi=10.1136/jcp.2002.002550|pmid=15790694|pmc=1770637}}<br>- B. {{cite journal|last1=Yao|first1=Kathy|last2=Singer|first2=Frederick R.|last3=Roth|first3=Sanford I.|last4=Sassoon|first4=Aaron|last5=Ye|first5=Cynthia|last6=Giuliano|first6=Armando E.|title=Weight of Normal Parathyroid Glands in Patients with Parathyroid Adenomas|journal=The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism|volume=89|issue=7|year=2004|pages=3208–3213|issn=0021-972X|doi=10.1210/jc.2003-031184}}
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*'''Presence of parathyroid tissue''' upon frozen section.
*'''Parathyroid hyperplasia''': Typically involves all 4 glands with diffuse enlargement.<ref name=MurroLin2020>{{cite web|url=https://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/parathyroidpthadenoma.html|title=Thyroid & parathyroid - Parathyroid nonmalignant - Parathyroid adenoma|author=Diana Murro Lin|website=Pathology Outlines}} Topic Completed: 27 October 2020. Minor changes: 2 June 2021.</ref>
*Parathyroid '''adenoma''': Typically nodular growth with compressed rim of normal tissue.<ref name=MurroLin2020/>
Either is indicated by a decreased amount of intra-gland adipose tissue, and increased weight. A weight of 35-160 mg is above average but not in itself "enlarged" in the absence of other findings.<ref group=notes note name=weight/>
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