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Patholines:Editorial guidelines

4,854 bytes added, 2 May
===Recommended approach===
Just start editing, taking the style and content to look appear similar to any relatively well developed articleat Patholines. If you do not know the tool or wiki code for what you want to do, just do something that makes it look as similar as possible, such as:
*Headers using UPPER CASE LETTERS
Use only in-line referencing,<ref group="notes">Never just add a citation at the bottom of the article, even if it reflects all current content, since verification will be extremely difficult following future content additions</ref> using the "Cite" tab in [[#"Edit" or "Edit source"|"Edit" mode]], and <code><nowiki><ref></nowiki></code> and <code><nowiki></ref></nowiki></code> in [[#"Edit" or "Edit source"|"Edit source" mode]] (see [[Wikipedia:Help:Footnotes#Footnotes:_the_basics|Wikipedia:Footnotes]] for additional help). With a known doi code for the reference, [https://reftag.appspot.com/doiweb.py the {T} DOI reference generator] can quickly generate the full citation. Likewise, [http://sumsearch.org/cite/ the Biomedical citation maker] can be used to generate full citations from PMID or PMCID.
===Geographic origin===
Geographic origin should be specified in the text for guidelines or other information that are expected to vary, including positive and negative predictive values of investigations (which depend on prevalences and incidences in the population). On the other hand, any geographic origin does not need to be stated for more universal knowledge such as sensitivity and specificity of investigations (which are independent on prevalences and incidences), or visible findings. Geographic origin can be given in prose such as ''"a US practice is to..."'', or in the beginning of a reference, such as:
*'''USA:''' {{cite journal|last1=Sbaraglia|first1=Marta|last2=Dei Tos|first2=Angelo P.|title=The pathology of soft tissue sarcomas|journal=La radiologia medica|volume=124|issue=4|year=2018|pages=266–281|issn=0033-8362|doi=10.1007/s11547-018-0882-7}}
When a substantial amount of content (with no strict threshold but often corresponding to about a section) is copied or closely paraphrased from a source with a Creative Commons license that includes attribution (such as [https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ CC-BY]), the authors of that article should be mentioned at top, such as "Authors of integrated Creative Commons article" followed by a [[#References|reference]] to that article. If only minor portions of such article is integrated, it is enough to mention the authors by a reference at the integrated material.
==Target audienceContent=='''Target audience''': The text should be written to be understood by a recent medical school graduate with corresponding pathology knowledge. It should be '''concise''', so that a pathologist (or graduate training to become a pathologist) at work can quickly find the information of interest. For example, do not state what the reader most definitely already knows.Also, limit the content to what should be done at each step, and limit the underlying theory thereof to the most essential, such as an overview chart of etiologies and their incidences in [[Dark_skin_focalities#Microscopic_evaluation|Dark skin focalities]].<ref name="elsewhere" group="notes">Patholines presumes that additional underlying theory can generally be readily found elsewhere.</ref>
The organization of gross and microscopic examinations must be '''finding-based''' rather than diagnosis-based (as in form example [[Kidney autopsy#Microscopic evaluation]]). It should must be assumed that the readers do '''not know the names''' for the pathologic findings at hand, '''nor which conditions''' are causing them when needing to use Patholines in the situation at hand, trying to find their way through the inter-article structure of Patholines (described in next section).
Text can be written in '''imperative ''' format where appropriate, such as "Look at..." or "Avoid...".
The '''ambition''' should be what is acceptable for a general pathologist without sub-specialization to perform. More detailed evaluations or procedures should be noted (such as "Optionally" or by distinguishing "An acceptable approach..." from "A more comprehensive approach". Such material can also be linked to separate articles, whose title can begin as contain "Beyond the acceptable ". Similarly, reports can be of various comprehensiveness (see for evaluating..."example [[Autopsy]]).
==Inter-article structure==
==No plain lists of causes==
No disease or other condition should be mentioned without realistic clues for reaching it. Thus, when linking to a condition from the previous level in the sequence, it must not be done by including it in a plain list of causes. Rather, it must be integrated so that it is clear ''how'' it is different from other conditions. It can is preferably done by a gallery (such as {{tl|Squamous-cell like skin proliferations - differential diagnosis}} (in this case a [[Patholines:Editorial_guidelines#Templates|Template (see below)]] that is used in multiple articles). It may also be done in prose and/or a table.
At least the most common causes should be mentioned in such differentials.
*[https://www.cap.org/ College of American Pathologists]
==General section recommendationsSections==
Suggested headers for different types of articles are given in their sections below. Still, it is not necessary for the creator of an article to start multiple sections right away, but can let it grow with time by collaborative editing.
Sections to generally '''avoid''':
*'''Anatomy''' or '''histology''' sections should generally not be used, because any relevant anatomy should be integrated into its context in other sections.
*'''Indications for biopsy''' or '''Treatment''', unless regularly generally performed by pathologists themselves. Otherwise, information about treatment is only relevant if being written together with how it affects the way to plan, evaluate or report on the imaging.<ref name="elsewhere" group="notes"/>
*Section headers without content, where section content should be added right away, or the header be removed.
Titles can be either singular or plural.
===Location articles===Example: [[Skin]], [[Liver]]
Recommended sections:
*'''Tissue sampling''', mainly for any relevant biopsy guidelines.*'''Fixation''', generally by using the {{tl|Fixation - standard}} template [[#Template|(see Template section below)]]. Specific additional techniques can be given after the template.
*'''Presentations''', such as [[skin]] mentioning [[Dark skin focalities]]
::This section may contain a subsection titled '''Most common direct requests''', which can include diagnoses, such as [[Skin]] mentioning [[Melanoma of the skin]].
*'''Gross processing'''
:*'''Triage''', when the specimen type often comes fresh. This describes procedures done until the specimen is put in formalin for later grossing.
:*'''Basic gross examination''', basic evaluation assuming that no pathology is present, leaving procedures for specific presentations or diseases to be described in their individual articles instead.
:*'''Tissue selection''', generally including necessary slices or other samples that are sent for further processing, in order to make a basic screening. This section may also include guidelines for additional cuts and trimming that are often useful, and can then be titled '''Tissue selection and trimming'''.
:*'''Gross report''' for gross examination findings (or absence thereof), and descriptions of tissue selections if applicable.
*'''Basic microscopic screening''', describing a minimal evaluation of the sample(s) in order to conclude report that no pathology is found.*'''Common findings''', which may also include harmless incidental findings.
===Location-specific presentation articles===Examples: [[Dark skin focalities]], [[Breast biopsy or excision]], [[Intestine with tumor]], [[Kidney autopsy]]
Recommended sections:
*'''FixationTissue sampling''', which can use a [[#Template|template (see Template section below)]] mainly for aspects that do not differ in the location at handany relevant biopsy guidelines. For example*'''Fixation''', such as the template{{tl|Skin fixation, minimalFixation - standard}} shows the minimal fixation procedures template as in both [[Skin]] and [[Dark skin focalities]]. Specific additional techniques can be given after the template''Location articles''.
*'''Gross processing'''
:*'''Gross examination'''
:*'''Tissue selection (and trimming)''', which likewise can use a template, followed by additional aspects and techniques.
:*'''Gross report''', including at least the most essential aspects that need to be commented on.
*'''Staining''', including orders for further processing even before microscopy evaluation, including for example immunohistochemistry, if it should be different or complementary to H&E stain.*'''Microscopic evaluation''' (can also be called '''Histopathologic evaluation'''), which should minimally include a gallery of the most important and/or common diagnoses. PreferablyEventually, it articles should also include a more systematic approachto the evaluation, including what areas and findings to look for, and how to interpret them, such as in [[Dark skin focalitiesKidney autopsy]].
:*'''Microscopy/Histopathology report'''
Use bulleted lists where possible.
===Location-unspecific diagnosis or presentation articles===
Example: [[Melanoma]]
*'''Locations''', such as [[Melanoma]] linking to [[Melanoma of the skin]]
===Location-specific diagnosis articles===Example: [[Melanoma of the skin]] and [[Basal cell carcinoma]]
The '''title''' should include a location, unless the diagnosis or finding is already specific to a certain location, such as [[Basal-cell carcinoma]] being specific to the skin already.
*One or more '''Fixationimages''' or '''gallery''', (such as in Presentation articles, and may likewise use a [[#Template|template (see Template section below)Seborrheic keratosis]] ) should be at the top of the article. These should have a short description, leaving more detailed descriptions to later sections.*'''Tissue sampling''', mainly for aspects that do not differ any relevant biopsy guidelines.*'''Fixation''', such as the {{tl|Fixation - standard}} template as in the location at hand''Location articles''.
*'''Gross processing''', as in Presentation articles
:*'''Gross examination'''
:*'''Gross report''', as in Presentation articles
*'''Microscopic/Histopathologic evaluation''', preferably including:
:*'''Characteristics/Microscopic characteristics''' such as diagnostic criteria. For features not seen in the vast majority of cases with the diagnosis of interest, note whether they are specific, or which conditions they help rule out (rather than just mentioning that the condition "sometimes displays" the feature).
::*'''Variants''', in case the condition has notable different appearances.
:*'''Differential diagnoses''', including how to distinguish it from at least the most common and/or important differential diagnoses. There should be no plain list of differential diagnoses (see [[#No plain lists of causes|the section ''No plain lists of causes'']] below).More detailed descriptions of overlapping cases can be described in a template that appears in the main articles of both, such as {{tl|Overlap of squamous-cell and basal-cell carcinoma}}, or as a separate article, such as [[Follicular lymphoma versus reactive follicular hyperplasia]].::*Any mention of '''immunohistochemistry''' staining should include the conditions that stain helps to indicate. ''Example: [[Lobular carcinoma in situ#Microscopic evaluation|Lobular carcinoma in situ]]''
:*'''Main clinical clues''', such as most common patient age, to help in evaluating the likelihood of the given diagnosis. This should be included ''after'' microscopic characteristics, because it becomes pathologically helpful only if microscopy does not give a definite diagnosis already.
:*'''Further workup ''' once the diagnosis is established, which depending on the disease may include:
::*'''Staging'''
::*'''Degree of differentiation'''
::*'''Further subtyping''' if relevant. At least when being an addition to the ''Variants'' section, it should only include clinically relevant subtyping.
:*'''Microscopyreport'''::*Important '''items''' to mention::*A modifiable '''template''' for a report:::Including a template for a '''synoptic report''' if relevant. ''Example: [[Urothelial carcinoma#Microscopy report]]''::*Example report*'''Re-excisions''' may have a separate section as in [[Squamous-cell carcinoma of the skin]] ===Location-specific finding articles===Example: [[Proteinaceous material in Bowman's space]]*'''Presentations''', linking to relevant articles where the finding is relevant, such as [[Myocardial fibrosis]] being a potential finding in [[Heart]], [[Heart autopsy|autopsy thereof]] and/or [[autopsy of myocardial infarction]].*'''Microscopic/Histopathology reportHistopathologic evaluation''', as per diagnosis articles above.
==Cases==
*'''Findings''' in the image
===Multiple images===In cases with 2 or 3 multiple images, it can be done by either:
*Copying the descriptions to each image page.
*Make an article starting as "Case of a ...", and linking to that article in each image page.*Templating(recommended for 3 or more images), as described in the [[#Templates]] section below, allowing any updates to immediately show for all images. For this purpose, the steps include:
**Giving the template a title, for example: ''26 year old woman with ectopic pregnancy, description''
**Write the case description on the template page. On the template page, it is also recommended to list all images that belong to the case.
===Indications===
For example, the template {{tl|Skin fixation, minimal}} shows the minimal fixation procedures in these articles:*[[Skin]]*[[Dark skin focalities]]This Information that is identical for multiple topics. It thereby avoids contradictions and missed locations when the material needs to be updated.
Templates can be used for data tables that are applicable to multiple For example, the template {{tl|Basic gross evaluation of suspected malignant skin lesions}} shows these aspects in these articles. :*[[Melanoma of the skin]]*[[Basal-cell carcinoma]]*[[Suspected malignant skin excisions]]*[[Squamous-cell carcinoma of the skin]]*[[Actinic keratosis]]
Templates can also be used for data tables that are applicable to multiple articles.  Common templates include:*Links to more those with general information on a topic, such as the {{tl|Reporting}} template which should be added at the end of each such section.:*{{tl|Fixation - general notes}}*{{tl|Gross processing}}*{{tl|Reporting}}Hence, an article may be created with the following foundation:{|class="wikitable"|[[Template:Top|<nowiki>{{Top</nowiki>]]<br><nowiki>|author1=[[User:Mikael Häggström|Mikael Häggström]]</nowiki><br><nowiki>|author2=</nowiki><br><nowiki>}}</nowiki><br>{{tl|Fixation - standard}}<br>{{tl|Fixation - general notes}}<br><nowiki>==Gross processing==</nowiki><br>{{tl|Gross processing}}<br><nowiki>==Microscopic evaluation==</nowiki><br><nowiki>===Microscopy/Histopathology report===</nowiki><br>{{tl|Reporting}}<br>{{tl|Bottom}}|}
===Creation===
==Variations of English==
Patholines articles may be written in ''American English'' (such as tumor) or ''British English'' (such as tumo'''u'''r). Keep a consistent format within each article; If an article is started in ''American English'', make any additions in ''American English'' as well.
 
==Bolded keywords==
Preferably use '''bold''' for keywords, making it easier to scroll fast to relevant topics.
==Talk pages==
In source code editing, the above may be added by copy-pasting the following text:
*<code><nowiki>Welcome to Patholines! I have received your submitted form, and I have now added you as an editor of Patholines. You will find more information on how to contribute at [[Patholines:Contribute]]. I have also added you at [[Patholines:About#Editors]]. You are welcome to add more details about yourself there, as well as at your user page (see [[Patholines:Editorial guidelines#User_page]]). Feel free to ask me if you have any further questions. Again, welcome! ~~~~</nowiki></code>
 
==Board questions==
One or more questions and answers related to the article content may be added in section near the bottom of the article. Questions should preferably relate to information that may not conveniently and/or timely be looked up when needed in practice, such as by emergency (for example [[lung wedge resection and lobectomy]] which often appears as intraoperative consultation) or complexity. In practice, there is limited reason to memorize the rest of the field of pathology for a pathologist who has experience in where to find needed information in reliable sources.<ref group=notes>Examples of items that hence do not need memorization include chromosome numbers of genes and their proteins.
</ref>
==See also==

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