Parathyroid glands

Revision as of 15:02, 2 September 2021 by Mikael Häggström (talk | contribs) (redundant)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Author: Mikael Häggström [note 1]


Intraoperative consultation

Necessary components are:

  • Weight of the parathyroid gland or fragment thereof. For reference, 90% of normal parathyroid glands weight less than 100g, and 96% less than 160g.[1]
  • Presence of parathyroid tissue upon frozen section.


Optionally for a comprehensive autopsy, or where there is suspicion of parathyroid pathology, an effort is made to find the parathyroid glands, and inspect them for general or focal hyper-/neoplasia.

Microscopic evaluation

Look for the most common significant findings, which are:

  • Hyperplastic glands, often nodular and asymmetric on inspection, and microscopy frequently show increased number of oxyphil cells.[2]
  • Parathyroid adenoma.[2]

Serum calcium levels are generally elevated in patients with adenomas or hyperplastic glands containing large nodules, and often correlates with nephrosclerosis.[2]

Microscopy report

Normal example:

  • Sections show <<1, 2, 3, 4>> parathyroid glands with no focal changes or signs of hyperplasia.

See also


  1. For a full list of contributors, see article history. Creators of images are attributed at the image description pages, seen by clicking on the images. See Patholines:Authorship for details.

Main page


  1. Yao, Kathy; Singer, Frederick R.; Roth, Sanford I.; Sassoon, Aaron; Ye, Cynthia; Giuliano, Armando E. (2004). "Weight of Normal Parathyroid Glands in Patients with Parathyroid Adenomas ". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 89 (7): 3208–3213. doi:10.1210/jc.2003-031184. ISSN 0021-972X. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Åkerström, G.; Rudberg, C.; Grimelius, L.; Bergström, R.; Johansson, H.; Ljunghall, S.; Rastad, J. (1986). "Histologic parathyroid abnormalities in an autopsy series ". Human Pathology 17 (5): 520–527. doi:10.1016/S0046-8177(86)80043-0. ISSN 00468177. 
  3. Piciucchi, Sara; Barone, Domenico; Gavelli, Giampaolo; Dubini, Alessandra; Oboldi, Devil; Matteuci, Federica (2012). "Primary Hyperparathyroidism: Imaging to Pathology ". Journal of Clinical Imaging Science 2: 59. doi:10.4103/2156-7514.102053. ISSN 2156-7514. 
    - This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Image sources