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Author: Mikael Häggström [note 1]


On this resource, the following formatting is used for comprehensiveness:

  • Minimal depth
  • (Moderate depth)
  • ((Comprehensive))

Gross processing


Usual steps:[1]

  • Weigh the specimen.
  • Measure:
  • The size of the testis in 3 dimensions
  • The spermatic cord length and diameter
  • Ink the tunica vaginalis.
  • Cut through tunica vaginalis with scissors
  • Bisect the testis in the plane of the epididymis.
  • If any tumor:
  • Photograph the cut surface.
  • Measure the size of the tumor in 3 dimensions
  • Describe the gross appearance.
  • Measure the distance of the tumor from the tunica vaginalis
  • Note tumor extension: up to, into, or through the tunica albuginea or vaginalis.
  • Measure the distance of the tumor from the epididymis and spermatic cord, and note any epididymal and spermatic cord involvement.
  • Describe the remaining testicular parenchyma.
  • If the specimen is large, serially section perpendicular to the long axis.

Tissue selection

Generally including the following:[1]

  • The proximal spermatic cord margin en face[note 2].
  • For any tumor:
  • At least 1 section per cm of tumor, including the closest penetration of tunica albuginea/vaginalis and epididymis.
  • Grossly different areas of tumor to determine which components are present (in case of potential mixed germ cell tumor).
  • Additional sections of the spermatic cord
  • Normal (uninvolved) testis.
  • Any found lymph nodes

In case of orchiectomy for undescended testis, submit the entire testicular parenchyma to evaluate for GCNIS (germ cell neoplasia in situ).[1]


Look mainly for:

  • Tumors.

Further information: Tumor evaluation

  • ((Optionally, disorders of spermatogenesis.))
Spermatogenesis pathologies.png


Example in a normal case:

Right testicle and spermatic cord, radical orchiectomy:
Benign testis(, negative for malignancy).


  1. For a full list of contributors, see article history. Creators of images are attributed at the image description pages, seen by clicking on the images. See Patholines:Authorship for details.
  2. En face means that the section is tangential to the region of interest (such as a lesion) of a specimen. Further information: Gross_processing#Cutting

Main page


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Nicole Cipriani. Testis. The University of Chicago Department of Pathology. Retrieved on 2021-03-31.
  2. Gill MS, Shah SH, Soomro IN, Kayani N, Hasan SH (2000). "Morphological pattern of testicular tumors. ". J Pak Med Assoc 50 (4): 110-3. PMID 10851829. Archived from the original. . 
  3. Reference for findings: Michelle R. Downes, M.D.. Testis & paratestis - Seminoma. Pathology Outlines. Last author update: 7 January 2020. Last staff update: 19 April 2022

Image sources