Urinary bladder

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Author: Mikael Häggström [note 1]



Urinary bladder biopsy

Usually performed as a transuretral resection of the bladder (TURB).

Gross reporting of transurethral resections

  • Generally submit all material. (It may be sufficient to submit representative sections that include the muscular layer, if grossly identified. Yet, many departments require submission of the entire specimen regardless, so if unsure, that is the safe choice.)
  • If transported or processed together with other cases, put the samples in thin-mesh cassettes or tissue bags to limit contamination.[note 2]

Example report:

Container A. Labeled "bladder tumor". The specimen is received in formalin and consists of multiple fragments of tan-gray, friable soft tissue measuring about __ x __ x __ cm in aggregate. The specimen is entirely submitted for microscopic examination in __ cassettes.


Mainly look for urothelial carcinoma (also called transitional cell carcinoma), which constitutes 95% of bladder cancers.[1]

Other possibilities:


  1. For a full list of contributors, see article history. Creators of images are attributed at the image description pages, seen by clicking on the images. See Patholines:Authorship for details.
  2. Urothelial carcinoma is a promiscuous contaminant of other tissues.
    - Carll T, Fuja C, Antic T, Lastra R, Pytel P (2022). "Tissue Contamination During Transportation of Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Blocks. ". Am J Clin Pathol 158 (1): 96-104. doi:10.1093/ajcp/aqac014. PMID 35195717. Archived from the original. . 

Main page


  1. . Types of Bladder Cancer: TCC & Other Variants. CTCA.
  2. Monika Roychowdhury. Bladder, ureter & renal pelvis - Urothelial neoplasms - noninvasive - Inverted urothelial papilloma. Pathology Outlines. Topic Completed: 1 December 2014. Minor changes: 3 December 2020

Image sources