Mikael Häggström [note 1]
- Urinary tract stone
- Urine cytology
- Urinary bladder biopsy, see below:
Urinary bladder biopsy
Usually performed as a transuretral resection of the bladder (TURB).
Gross reporting of transurethral resections
- Generally submit all material. (It may be sufficient to submit representative sections that include the muscular layer, if grossly identified. Yet, many departments require submission of the entire specimen regardless, so if unsure, that is the safe choice.)
- If transported or processed together with other cases, put the samples in thin-mesh cassettes or tissue bags to limit contamination.[note 2]
|Container A. Labeled "bladder tumor". The specimen is received in formalin and consists of multiple fragments of tan-gray, friable soft tissue measuring about __ x __ x __ cm in aggregate. The specimen is entirely submitted for microscopic examination in __ cassettes.|
Mainly look for urothelial carcinoma (also called transitional cell carcinoma), which constitutes 95% of bladder cancers.
Low grade urothelial carcinoma: Urothelium is thickened but only slightly atypical and has maintained polarity.
High grade urothelial carcinoma: Loss of polarity and severe abnormal cytology.
In contrast, an inverted urothelial papilloma has smooth surface with minimal to absent exophytic component, is well circumscribed with smooth base, and has no obvious infiltration and no/minimal cytologic atypia.
Squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. Further information: Urothelial versus squamous cell carcinoma
- ↑ For a full list of contributors, see article history. Creators of images are attributed at the image description pages, seen by clicking on the images. See Patholines:Authorship for details.
- ↑ Urothelial carcinoma is a promiscuous contaminant of other tissues.
- Carll T, Fuja C, Antic T, Lastra R, Pytel P (2022). "Tissue Contamination During Transportation of Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Blocks. ". Am J Clin Pathol 158 (1): 96-104. doi:10.1093/ajcp/aqac014. PMID 35195717. Archived from the original. .
- ↑ . Types of Bladder Cancer: TCC & Other Variants. CTCA.
- ↑ Monika Roychowdhury. Bladder, ureter & renal pelvis - Urothelial neoplasms - noninvasive - Inverted urothelial papilloma. Pathology Outlines. Topic Completed: 1 December 2014. Minor changes: 3 December 2020