Flow cytometry

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Author: Mikael Häggström, M.D. [note 1]

CD4/CD8 ratio

A ratio of 1.5 and 2.5 is generally considered normal.[1][notes 1]

Kappa/lambda ratio

Normal range: 1.35 - 2.95.[2]


  1. Normal CD4/CD8 ratio is affected by multiple factors, including sex, age, ethnicity and genetics
  1. For a full list of contributors, see article history. Creators of images are attributed at the image description pages, seen by clicking on the images. See Patholines:Authorship for details.

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  1. McBride JA, Striker R (2017). "Imbalance in the game of T cells: What can the CD4/CD8 T-cell ratio tell us about HIV and health? ". PLoS Pathog 13 (11): e1006624. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1006624. PMID 29095912. PMC: 5667733. Archived from the original. . 
  2. Jiang AS, Wu Z, Wei EX, Ni H, You B, Yang T (2018). "Plasma cell myeloma with dual expression of kappa and lambda light chains. ". Int J Clin Exp Pathol 11 (9): 4718-4723. PMID 31949873. PMC: 6962953. Archived from the original. . 

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