Skin chapter

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Author: Mikael Häggström [notes 1]
For skin specimens in general:


Generally 10% neutral buffered formalin.

See also: General notes on fixation

Microscopic evaluation

If the referral does not point to any particular request (see "Most common requests" above), the following algorithm may be applied:

In intraoperative consultations by frozen section, it is generally sufficient to report clear margins if present, and specification of the type of tumor can be deferred to permanent sections.


Preferably see specific articles from algorithm in section above.

  • Optionally, the presence of a keratinized squamous epithelium.
  • Any abnormalities, generally preceded by location in terms of epidermal, dermal or more specific layers thereof.
  • If malignant:
  • Degree of differentiation
  • Radicality/Least distance to a margin
  • Perineural or vascular invasion if present


  1. For a full list of contributors, see article history. Creators of images are attributed at the image description pages, seen by clicking on the images. See Patholines:Authorship for details.

Main page


  1. Page 678 in: Chhabra, Seema; Minz, RanjanaWalker; Saikia, Biman (2012). "Immunofluorescence in dermatology ". Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology, and Leprology 78 (6): 677. doi:10.4103/0378-6323.102355. ISSN 0378-6323. Archived from the original. . 
  2. Katarzyna Lundmark, Krynitz, Ismini Vassilaki, Lena Mölne, Annika Ternesten Bratel. Handläggning av hudprover – provtagningsanvisningar, utskärningsprinciper och snittning (Handling of skin samples - Instructions for sampling, cutting and incision. KVAST (Swedish Society of Pathology). Retrieved on 2019-09-09.