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Author: Mikael Häggström [notes 1]

Gross processing


Usual steps:[1]

  • Weigh the specimen.
  • Measure:
  • The size of the testis in 3 dimensions
  • The spermatic cord length and diameter
  • Ink the tunica vaginalis.
  • Cut through tunica vaginalis with scissors
  • Bisect the testis in the plane of the epididymis.
  • Photograph the cut surface.
  • If any tumor:
  • Measure the size of the tumor in 3 dimensions
  • Describe the gross appearance.
  • Measure the distance of the tumor from the tunica vaginalis
  • Note tumor extension: up to, into, or through the tunica albuginea or vaginalis.
  • Measure the distance of the tumor from the epididymis and spermatic cord, and note any epididymal and spermatic cord involvement.
  • Describe the remaining testicular parenchyma.
  • If the specimen is large, serially section perpendicular to the long axis.
  • Fix in formalin overnight.

Tissue selection

Generally including the following:[1]

  • The proximal spermatic cord margin en face[notes 2].
  • For any tumor:
  • At least 1 section per cm of tumor, including the closest penetration of tunica albuginea/vaginalis and epididymis.
  • Grossly different areas of tumor to determine which components are present (in case of potential mixed germ cell tumor).
  • Additional sections of the spermatic cord
  • Normal (uninvolved) testis.
  • Any found lymph nodes

In case of orchiectomy for undescended testis, submit the entire testicular parenchyma to evaluate for GCNIS (germ cell neoplasia in situ).[1]


  1. For a full list of contributors, see article history. Creators of images are attributed at the image description pages, seen by clicking on the images. See Patholines:Authorship for details.
  2. En face means that the section is tangential to the region of interest (such as a lesion) of a specimen. It does not in itself specify whether microtomy of the slice should be performed on the peripheral or proximal surface of the slice.

Main page


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Nicole Cipriani. Testis. The University of Chicago Department of Pathology. Retrieved on 2021-03-31.