It is not necessary to look through more than readily available reports from previous urine cytologies.
Mainly look for:
Reactive urothelial changes, Pap stain, showing urothelial cells with enlarged nuclei but a nucleus-cytoplasm ratio of less than 0.5. There are bacteria, as well as an inflammatory response of neutrophils, providing a cause for the changes. Can be reported as "Benign urothelial cells, neutrophils and bacteria".
High-grade urothelial carcinoma. Cytologic diagnosis of high-grade urothelial carcinoma requires > 10 cells with high N/C ratio, irregular chromatin pattern and hyperchromatic nuclei (Pap stain).
The N/C ratios apply to the finding of any cells meeting the criteria, and not the average among atypical cells (in the majority of obviously positive cases, N/C/ratio averages 0.5). When there are obvious features of malignancy, there is no need to hunt for cells that fulfil all criteria to make such diagnosis.
- Wang Y, Auger M, Kanber Y, Caglar D, Brimo F (2018). "Implementing The Paris System for Reporting Urinary Cytology results in a decrease in the rate of the "atypical" category and an increase in its prediction of subsequent high-grade urothelial carcinoma. ". Cancer Cytopathol 126 (3): 207-214. doi:10.1002/cncy.21958. PMID 29278461. Archived from the original. .
- - Image by Mikael Häggström. Reference: Wojcik EM, Kurtycz DFI, Rosenthal DL (2022). "We'll always have Paris The Paris System for Reporting Urinary Cytology 2022. ". J Am Soc Cytopathol 11 (2): 62-66. doi:10.1016/j.jasc.2021.12.003. PMID 35094954. Archived from the original. .