Verrucous oral lesions

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Author: Mikael Häggström [notes 1]

Verrucous hyperplasia.

Verrucous oral lesions have hypergranulosis and/or hyperkeratosis as the most conspicuous finding.

Microscopic evaluation

Look for signs of koilocyte-like changes, which may indicate verrucous squamous cell carcinoma, and which typically only has low atypia:[1]

Verrucous squamous cell carcinoma (images are from penis).

If uncertain, perform immunohistochemistry for Ki67 and p53.


  1. For a full list of contributors, see article history. Creators of images are attributed at the image description pages, seen by clicking on the images. See Patholines:Authorship for details.

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  1. Initially copied from: Paolino, Giovanni; Donati, Michele; Didona, Dario; Mercuri, Santo; Cantisani, Carmen (2017). "Histology of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancers: An Update ". Biomedicines 5 (4): 71. doi:10.3390/biomedicines5040071. ISSN 2227-9059.  - "This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ("