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Author: Mikael Häggström [notes 1]

Gross processing

Generally as per skin.

Microscopic examination

Histopathology of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) of vulva (left in image) with full thickness dysplasia, compared to normal epithelium at right.

Mainly look for squamous vulvar intraepithelial lesions:

  • Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL):[1]
  • Acanthosis, papillomatosis, and/or atypical koilocytosis in upper layers
  • Usually mild atypia and mitoses, limited to the lower third of stratum spinosum and basale
  • Binucleated epithelial cells
  • High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL):[1]
  • Enlarged atypical nuclei and mitoses involving middle and upper third of the epithelium.
  • Also telling are atypical mitoses and/or extension in hair follicles and skin appendages.


  1. For a full list of contributors, see article history. Creators of images are attributed at the image description pages, seen by clicking on the images. See Patholines:Authorship for details.

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  1. 1.0 1.1 Matthias Choschzick. Vulva, vagina & female urethra - Squamous carcinoma and precursor lesions - HPV associated SIL. PathologyOutlines. Topic Completed: 6 January 2021. Minor changes: 11 June 2021