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Author: Mikael Häggström, M.D. [note 1]

Overall evaluation

In addition to a general evaluation, also evaluate the following in cytology samples, or any sample with scattered cells rather than coherent tissue:

  • Consider looking for any additional concurrent samples from the same patient, especially excisions, as usually correlate.
  • Adequacy of specimen. Cells may be too few or too obscured by other material to make a proper diagnosis.
  • Background, mainly if it is clear or dirty
  • Overall cellularity



  1. For a full list of contributors, see article history. Creators of images are attributed at the image description pages, seen by clicking on the images. See Patholines:Authorship for details.

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  1. Okayama K, Ishii Y, Fujii M, Oda M, Okodo M (2022). "Causation of cornflake artifacts: Possible association of poor dehydration with drying before mounting in Papanicolaou stain. ". Diagn Cytopathol. doi:10.1002/dc.25002. PMID 35712848. Archived from the original. . 
  2. Gary Gill. RE: Cornflaking. Histosearch. Retrieved on 2022-09-01.

Image sources