Lichen sclerosus

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Author: Mikael Häggström [note 1]


Mainly including:


Generally 10% neutral buffered formalin.

  See also: General notes on fixation

Gross processing

  See also: General notes on gross processing

Microscopic evaluation

Micrograph of extragenital lichen sclerosus: epidermal atrophy, follicular plugging and basal vacuolization, and sclerosis with initial homogenization of collagen in the dermis.[1]

Findings associated with lichen sclerosus are:[2]

  • Hyperkeratosis
  • Atrophic epidermis
  • Sclerosis of the dermis
  • Lymphocytes in the dermis

Also look for dysplasia,[3] especially in the basal layer, which, depending on location, would confer a diagnosis of actinic keratosis or vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia.



  • Presence or absence of lichen sclerosus
  • Optionally, even the absence of dysplasia.

  See also: General notes on reporting


  1. For a full list of contributors, see article history. Creators of images are attributed at the image description pages, seen by clicking on the images. See Patholines:Authorship for details.

Main page


  1. Jędrowiak, Anna; Kobusiewicz, Aleksandra; Trznadel-Grodzka, Ewa; Kaszuba, Andrzej (2018). "Dermoscopic findings in extragenital lichen sclerosus ". Our Dermatology Online 9 (2): 197–199. doi:10.7241/ourd.20182.24. ISSN 20819390. 
    - "Figures - available via license: CC BY 4.0"
  2. Lisa K Pappas-Taffer. Lichen Sclerosus. EMedicine. Updated: May 17, 2018
  3. Shelley, W. B.; Shelley, E. D.; Amurao, C. V. (2006). "Treatment of lichen sclerosus with antibiotics ". International Journal of Dermatology 45 (9): 1104–1106. doi:10.1111/j.1365-4632.2006.02978.x. PMID 16961523. 

Image sources