On this resource, the following formatting is used for comprehensiveness:
- Minimal depth
- (Moderate depth)
As per presentation above.
Medical imaging provides a major clue as to whether a lung tumor is benign or malignant, where lesions smaller than 2 cm are likely to be benign, whereas lesions larger than 2 cm are malignant (that is, lung cancer) in 85% of cases.
Subsequently distribution of benign tumors and lung cancers, respectively, are as follows:
Benign lung tumors:
- Hamartomas - 76%
- Benign fibrous mesothelioma/solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) - 12.3%
- Inflammatory pseudotumor (IPT) - 5.4%
- Lipoma - 1.5%
- Leiomyoma - 1.5%
- Other - 3.3%
Lung adenocarcinoma, with lepidic pattern shown, wherein tumors cells cover alveolar walls.
Lung adenocarcinoma, with solid pattern.
Whereas large cell carcinoma is more often histologically distinct, adenocarcinoma and SCC may look alike. In such cases, an immunohistochemistry panel of TTF1, CK5/6, and p63 can be used to distinguish the two.
For non-small cell carcinoma (NSCLC) stages IB - IV, generally perform full next generation sequencing panel (DNA and RNA) with PDL-1 immunostaining. For advanced stage NSCLC that are not candidates for biopsy or re-biopsy, “liquid biopsy” on peripheral blood is a viable option.
- Alain C. Borczuk (2008). "Benign Tumors and Tumorlike Conditions of the Lung ". Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine 132 (7). Archived from the original. .
- Kuroki, Masaomi; Nakata, Hiroshi; Masuda, Toshifumi; Hashiguchi, Norihisa; Tamura, Shozo; Nabeshima, Kazuki; Matsuzaki, Yasunori; Onitsuka, Toshio (2002). "Minute Pulmonary Meningothelial-like Nodules: High-Resolution Computed Tomography and Pathologic Correlations ". Journal of Thoracic Imaging 17 (3): 227–229. doi:10.1097/00005382-200207000-00008. ISSN 0883-5993.
- Dr Nicholas Turnbull, A/Prof Patrick Emanual (2014-05-03). Squamous cell carcinoma pathology. DermNetz.
- Image by Mikael Häggström, MD. Source for significance: Bejarano PA, Mousavi F (2003). "Incidence and significance of cytoplasmic thyroid transcription factor-1 immunoreactivity. ". Arch Pathol Lab Med 127 (2): 193-5. doi:10.5858/2003-127-193-IASOCT. PMID 12562233. Archived from the original. .
- Inamura K (2018). "Update on Immunohistochemistry for the Diagnosis of Lung Cancer. ". Cancers (Basel) 10 (3). doi:10.3390/cancers10030072. PMID 29538329. PMC: 5876647. Archived from the original. .
- Affandi KA, Tizen NMS, Mustangin M, Zin RRMRM (2018). "p40 Immunohistochemistry Is an Excellent Marker in Primary Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma. ". J Pathol Transl Med 52 (5): 283-289. doi:10.4132/jptm.2018.08.14. PMID 30235512. PMC: 6166010. Archived from the original. .